This course offers lessons to improve writing skills by learning how to combine and form correct sentences ,types of paragraphs and practice capitalization and punctuation.To master these fundamendals of writing much practice is required through exercises and reading . 


Definition Paragraphs

 

Organization

People who are interested in your culture may ask you to explain a word that you have heard but do not understand, such as Spanish machismo or German Gemütlichkeit, or an interesting custom or practice such as casual Friday or Saint Patrick’s Day in the United States, O-bon festivals in Japan, holi festivals in India, or quinceañera parties in Spanish-influenced cultures.

     Tests of general writing ability sometimes ask you to define abstract terms such as love, friendship, courage, or happiness. Tests in college classes may contain questions such as these:

 

Law Enforcement       What are Miranda rights?

Landscape Design       What are organic soil amendments, and how do they improve soil?

U.S. History                  What was the Underground Railroad?

Health Sciences           What is the Rh factor, and why is it important to pregnant women and

their babies.

                                                                                            

Paragraph 1                                       

                                      The Underground Railroad

     The Underground Railroad was a secret system that helped slaves escape from slavery in the United States during the mid-1800s. It was not a real railroad; rather, it was a loosely organized chain of people                                                                                                                                                                          and safe houses that stretched from the slave states of the south to the free states of the North and Canada. The escapes traveled mostly on foot at night and hid during the day. Free blacks and some whites helped the escapees, giving them food, clothing, paces to hide, and directions to the next safe house. Indeed, the Underground Railroad was a remarkable system that helped thousands of slaves find safety and freedom.

 

MODELS                        

Definition

Paragraphs

Paragraph 2

Courage

     Courage is the quality of being brave when you are facing something that is dangerous or that you fear. For example, a soldier who goes into battle shows courage. A paramedic who crawls into a collapsed building to help an injured person also shows courage. However, you don’t have to be a soldier or a paramedic to be courageous. You can display courage in everyday situations, too. For instance, a shy who is afraid of speaking in public shows courage when he or she gives a speech at school or at work. A teenager who resists peer pressure to smoke, drink, or try drugs shows courage. To give another example, my friend Angela, who is terrified of flying, recently took her first airplane flight. As she walked onto the plane, she was trembling with fear, but she didn’t give in to her fright. To me, Angela entering that airplane was as brave as a soldier entering battle.

 

Parademic: a person who is trained to give emergency medical help

 

 

 

Questions on the Models

1.       In each model paragraph paragraph, identify the three parts of the topic sentence: topic, category or group, distinguishing characteristics. (Read the information and chart below first)

2.       Which paragraph uses examples in the supporting sentences?

3.       Which paragraph uses facts to answer who, what, where, why, whom, and how questions?

     One way to write the topic sentence of a definition paragraph is to give three pieces of information:

1.       The word or thing you will define or explain (the topic)

2.       The large category or group to which the word or thing belongs

3.       The distinguishing characteristics that make it different from other members of the category

Term / Person / Concept

Category or Group

Distinguishing Characteristics

The Underground Railroad was …

 

 

Courage is …

 

 

Casual Friday refers to …

a secret system …

 

 

the quality …

 

 

the custom …

that helped slaves escape from the South to freedom in the North during the mid-1800s.

 

of being brave when you are facing something that is dangerous or that you fear.

 

of office workers wearing casual clothes to work on Fridays.

 

 

 

     In the supporting sentences, add details that explain the topic more completely. The supporting sentences may give additional facts telling who, what, where, when, how, or why, an explanation of a process, examples, or a description.

     In the concluding sentence, you may tell why the topic is important, interesting, or unique.

Practice 1

Topic Sentences for Definition Paragraphs

     Complete each topic sentence for a definition paragraph with (1) a category or group and (2) distinguishing characteristics. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1.       A dictator is ………………………. who …………………………………………………………. .

2.       An optimist is …………………….who ……………………………………………………………

3.       A good friend is …………………..who ………………………………………………………….

4.       An ideal spouse is ……………………….who …………………………………………………..

5.       Chess is ………………………. that ………………………………………………………………….

Try It Out

     Choose four words of your own to define in topic sentences for definition paragraphs.

Practice 2

A.      On a separate piece of paper, write the following sentences in the correct order to make a definition paragraph.

 

Walter Gropius

1.       Another major contribution to the building industry was his promotion of designs that could be mass-produced.

2.       In contrast to the ornately decorated stone structures of an earlier era, Gropius’s steel and glass buildings had straight lines and no ornamentation.

3.       Gropius was also known for his belief in the value of teamwork, and he worked together with other architects or many projects.

4.       He was influential mainly when he was the director of Germany Bauhaus school of design.

5.       In sum, Gropius and his followers transformed cities from Toronto to Tokyo.

6.       Walter Gropius was a German-born architect who designed simple “glass box” buildings and changed the look of cities worldwide.

7.       At the Bauhaus, Gropius was a leader of the International Style of the 1920s, a style that greatly changed building design.

 

B.      Cross out one sentence that breaks the unity of the paragraph.

 

     Kimchi, or kimchee, is Korea’s national dish. It is made of fermented vegetables. There are many ways to make kimchi, but it usually contains Chinese cabbage, salt, garlic, red pepper, green onion, fish sauce, and ginger. These ingredients are mixed together, put into a container, allowed to ferment for three or four days. Nutritionists say that kimchi is very good for you. In fact, the U.S. magazine Health says it is one of the five healthiest foods because it has a lot of vitamins and because it helps digestion. It may even prevent cancer. The other four healthy foods are yogurt, olive oil, lentils, and soy. Kimchi is very spicy and has a very strong taste, but Koreans adore it. They eat it with every meal, either alone or mixed with rice or noodles. They also use it in soup, pancakes, and even as a pizza topping.

 

Writing Assignment

     Choose a word, custom, or holiday from your culture that is probably unfamiliar to an outsider. Write a paragraph to describe it and explain its meaning and/or significance.

Step 1  Prewrite to get ideas.

Step 2  Organize the ideas by making an outline.

Step 3  Write the rough draft

·         Focus on using good paragraph structure, with a topic sentence, supporting sentences that develop (explain) the topic, and a concluding sentence.

·         Try to use at least one appositive and one adjective clause in your paragraph.

              Step 4  Polish the rough draft.

·         Exchange papers with a classmate and ask him or her to check your rough draft. Then discuss the completed worksheet and decide what changes you should make. Write a second.

·         Check your second draft for grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.

               Step 5  Write a final copy.  

Source: Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. (2007). Introduction to Academic Writing (3rd ed). USA. Pearson Education, Inc.


By the end of this lesson, students will be able to use punctuation correctly. Also, they will be able to write correct sentences and paragraphs using punctuation.


Dr. Dib Nawal

                                                             Comparison/Contrast (2)

 

1. Comparison Signals

1.       Sentence connectors can appear in various places in a sentence.

     Tokyo is the major financial heart of Japan. Similarly/likewise, New York is the center of banking and finance in the United States.

1a. Also often appears in the middle or at the end of a sentence. Don’t use also with a semicolon.

     Tokyo is a major financial center. New York is a center of banking and finance also.

1b. and 2. Too usually comes at the end of a sentence. It often appears together with the coordinating conjunction and. Some writers put a comma before too at the end of a sentence, but it is not required.

 

Tokyo is a center of style and fashion; New York is, too.

1.       As is a subordinating word. It begins a dependent clause. The word just makes it stronger. Notice that you use a comma even when the independent clause comes first. This is an exception to the usual rule.

     Tokyo is trendy and hip, as/just as New York is.

2.       These words act like adjectives; that is, they describe nouns.

     Tokyo’s and New York’s traffic problems are similar/equal/ the same.

     Tokyo and New York have similar/equal/the same traffic problems.

 

4. These words act like prepositions. They come in front of nouns.

      Tokyo’s traffic is similar to /(just) like/ the same as New York’s.

      Like New York, Tokyo has traffic problems.

4a. Equally is an adverb. It describes an adjective (crowded). An adverb can also describe a verb or another adverb.

     Tokyo and New York City are equally crowed.

3.       Paired conjunctions are always used together. Notice that the word that comes after the second conjunction must be the same part of speech (noun, verb, prepositional phrase, etc.) as the word that comes after the first conjunction. This is an important rule in English and called the rule of parallelism.

      The two cities are both trendy and hip.

      The two cities are not only trendy but also hip.

 Right      The two cities are both trendy (adjective) and hip. (adjective)

 Wrong The two cities are both noisy (adjective) and have too many people ( verb phrase)

 

Both New York City and Tokyo have outstanding international restaurants. (nouns)

Tokyoites and new Yorkers can both eat and drink in any kind of restaurants. (Verbs)

The two cities have both positive and negative features.(adjectives)

Not only Tokyoites but also New Yorkers dress fashionably. (nouns)

You can see joggers not only in Central Park but also in Hibuya Park.( prepositional phrases).

 

2.       Contrast Signals

     The following words and phrases are used for writing contrasts:

More/less + adjective / adverb +than Eating out is more expensive than cooking at home.

Adjective+ er+ than My bedroom is bigger than my sister’s room.

But, while, though I enjoy eating fruit for dessert, but / while / though my friend likes chocolate.

Not the same as This book isn’t the same as the one you bought.

Not as … as Some people feel that doing exercise isn’t as fun as watching TV.

Different from That style of shirt is different from the styles most people wear.

In contrast The lakes we swam in were very clean and beautiful. In contrast, the lakes in my country are polluted.

However The new shop sells its clothing at low prices. However, other shops have better quality clothing.

On the other hand My boyfriend likes doing sport. On the other hand, I prefer doing yoga.

3.       Practice

1.       Complete these sentences with phrases from above.

a.       Some tourists enjoy going on organized tours, ……………… many other tourists prefer travelling on their own.

b.      The two books are very ……………….. each other.

c.       The cost of studying in a college or university in Britain is very high. …………………..,in many other countries, the cost is much lower.

d.      Changes in technology are occurring ………………… quickly ………………… in the past.

1.       Circle all the comparison signals in the model paragraph Miller Medical Labs memorandum.

2.       Complete the following sentences. Be sure to follow the rule of parallelism. 

1.       Both in Tokyo and    in New York City  the art museums display many famous masterpieces.

2.       Both overcrowded subways and ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ are problems in Tokyo and New York City.

3.       You can buy designer cloth not only in boutique but alsoـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ.

4.       New Yorkers and Tokyoites can not only see a movie but can alsoـــــــــــــــــــــــ at any time.

5.       In the summer, the weather in Tokyo and in New York is both hot and

6.       The Ginza and Fifth avenue shopping districts have both fine jewelry stores andــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ .

3.       Combine the ideas in the two sentences, using the comparison structure word in parentheses. Punctuate your new sentences carefully.

1.       Magazine and newspaper advertising information about new products to the public. Radio, television, and internet ads tell the public what’s new. ( similarly)

Magazine and newspapers advertising information about a product to the public. Similarly, radio, television, and Internet ads tell the public what’s new.

2.       Newspapers and magazines need advertising to pay their costs. (like)

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

3.       The media reach millions of people around the world. The Internet reaches people everywhere. (similarly)

 

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4.       Most people read a daily newspaper. Most people listen to the radio or watch television every day. (just as)

 

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

5.       Printed pictures are powerful advertising media. Video pictures are powerful advertising media. (equally)

 

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5. Write sentences of comparison using the words and phrases given. In all sentences, you will to supply a verb.

       1. The Spanish language/the Italian language (similar to)

        ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

1.       Knowing a second language/useful/travel/employment (not only … but also)

 

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

6. Combine the following sentences in three ways.

1.       Eating well and exercising will keep you in good health. Exercising by itself will not.

a.       …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b.      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

c.       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.       A university has a graduate school. A college usually does not.

a.       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

b.      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

c.       …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.       Marco will go to college on a full scholarship. Peter will have to work part time.

a.       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

b.      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

c.       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.       Medical care is free in Canada. People must pay for it in the United States.

a.       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b.      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

c.       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7. Complete the sentences of comparison or contrast with the signal words and phrases in parentheses.

1. (but) In the United States, people drive on the right side of a road, ………………………………

…………………………………………………………………….

          2. (yet) Professor Rand’s first exam was easy ………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………

2.       (although) Texting is a popular new way to communicate ………………………………………..

………………………………………………………….

3.       (whereas) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. my grandparents do not know how to turn a computer on.

4.       (different from) The method of cooking rice in China ………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………

 

Writing Assignment

Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting two school systems.


Comparison/Contrast Paragraph

 

Organization

      Comparison and contrast is a technique that we use every day. For example, we compare and contrast courses and teachers when we decide which classes to take. We compare and contrast products and prices when we shop. An employer compares and contrasts applicant for jobs, and a job applicant compares and contrasts job offers. In college classes, you will often have to compare and constrast. For example, in a history class, you might be asked to compare and contrast two historical figures or two events. In a literature class, you might have to compare two poems or two characters in a play. Knowing how to write comparison/contrast paragraphs is a very useful skill.

   When we compare two (or more) things, we tell what is similar about them. When we contrast things, we tell what is different about them. Usually, the emphasis is on the differences, but sometimes a paragraph describes both similarities and differences. As you read the model paragraphs, decide which one emphasizes differences and which one describes both similarities and differences.

 

Model Paragraph 1

 

Right brain / Left Brain

 

     The left and right sides of your brain process information in different ways. The left side is logical, rational, linear, and verbal. The right side, on the other hand, processes information intuitively, emotionally, creatively, and visually. Left brains think in words, whereas right brains think in picture. People who depend more on the left side of their brain are list makers and analysts. They are detailed, careful, and organized. In contrast, right –brained people are visual, intuitive, and sensual. When a left-brained person has to make an important decision, he or she makes a mental list of all the factors involved and arrives at a decision only after careful analysis. When a right-brained person has to make the same decision, on the other hand, he or she is more likely to base it on intuition and feelings. For example, a left-brained automobile shopper will consider a car’s cost, fuel efficiency, and resale value, whereas a right-brained shopper bases a decision on how shiny the chrome is, how soft the seats are, and how smoothly the car drives. Of course, no one is 100 percent left-brained or 100 percent right-brained. A though one side may be stronger, both sides normally work together.

     Read the following chart that the personnel manager for a medical laboratory prepared. In the chart, she summarized the qualifications of two applicants for a summer job as a receptionist in a medical laboratory. Then read the memo she wrote to her boss.

 

 

 

 

Two Job Applicants

 

Applicant JZ

Applicant SW

education

high school graduate; 2 years college; 3.4 GPA

high school graduate; 2 years college; 3.5 GPA

work history

summer job as a file clerk in doctor’s office (some patient contact); volunteer in retirement home

summer jobs---car wash, pizza delivery, hospital volunteer (library, gift shop, no patient contact)

interview

excellent---friendly, open; likes to be part of a team.

excellent---friendly, open; likes to work independently

reference check

excellent recommendation from one past employer

excellent recommendations from all past employers

availability

June I

June I

Model Paragraph 2

 


Miller Medical Labs

 Memorandum

To:   Director of Human Resources

From:     Barbara Johnson

 

     From the fourteen applicants received for the job of receptionist, two applicants stand out. Following is a summary of their qualifications. Educationally, the two applicants are quite similar. JZ has completed two years of college, just as SW has, and their grade point averages are approximately equal. JZ’s one past employer was very positive. Similarly, SW’s past employers gave very high recommendations. Finally, both applicants can start work on the same date (June 1). There are two differences between the job applicants that may influence the hiring decision. The first difference is that that JZ’s job in a medical office included some contact with patients, whereas SW’s volunteer work in the library and gift shop of a local hospital included no patient contact. Second, JZ likes to be part of a team, while SW prefers to work independently. The hiring decision is difficult because both applicants are equally well qualified. However, JZ would be the better choice for the receptionist job because of her experience with patient contact and preference for working with other staff. If there is a future opening for a lab assistant, SW would be an excellent choice for that position.

 


Questions on the Models

1.       Which paragraph discusses both similarities and differences?

2.       Which paragraph discusses mostly differences?

3.       What is the topic sentence of Paragraph 1?

4.       What example does the writer give to illustrate the main point in Paragraph 1?

5.       What is the topic sentence of Paragraph 2? (Hint: It is not the first sentence.)

6.       How many similarities does the writer of Paragraph2 describe? How many differences?

    There are two ways to organize a comparison/contrast paragraph. One way is called block organization, and the other way is called point-by-point organization.

     In block organization, you group all the similarities together in one block and all the differences together in one block. Both model paragraphs use block organization.

all similarities

all differences

 

     In point-by-point organization, you write about similarities and differences by subtopic. For example, if you are comparing and contrasting several wireless telephone plans, you might compare and contrast them on these subtopics:

·         Cost of telephone  (similarities and differences)

·         Monthly (similarities and differences)

·         Length of contract (similarities and differences)

·         Reliability of service (similarities and differences)

 

     If you have a lot sat about each subtopic, you may need to write a separate paragraph for each one.

     The pattern of organization you choose depends on your topic. Also, whether you discuss more similarities or more differences (or both) depends on your topic.

     A topic sentence for a comparison/contrast paragraph should name the topic and also indicate comparison/ contrast organization.

The left and right sides of your brain process information in different ways.

When buying wireless telephone service, you should compare different plans on four points.

     A concluding sentence for a comparison/contrast paragraph may repeat the main ideas.

The hiring decision is difficult because both applicants are so similar.

     A concluding sentence may also make a recommendation.

However, JX would be the better choice for the receptionist job because of her experience with patient contact and preference for working with other staff.

 

In my opinion, the TeleVox telephone is the best choice for our company.

Try It Out

     Work with a partner or a small group. You are a travel agent, and a client has asked you to help her decide on a vacation destination. She wants to go during the summer, and she is considering Alaska and Hawaii. Both places are popular tourist destinations. You have gathered some information about the two places. You now need to organize this information and prepare a written report.

 

Step 1: Study the list of information about Alaska and Hawaii. Clarify any unfamiliar vocabulary.

 

Step 2: The information is not in any order. Organize the information by filling in the chart. Begin by assigning the items to one of the following main topic: accommodation, climate, or natural Beauty.

Then put the information in the appropriate boxes.

 

1.       The quality of hotels in Alaska is quite good.

2.       It often rains during the summer in Hawaii.

3.       The temperature is perfect in Alaska during the summer.

4.       Hawaii has Volcano National Park and Waimea Canyon.

5.       Accommodations in Alaska vary from basic to luxury.

6.       The beaches in Hawaii are among the most beautiful in the world.

7.       The glaciers in Alaska are awesome.

8.       There is a wide range of excellent hotels and condos in Hawaii, from luxury to budget priced.

9.       Alaska has the Chugach Mountains and Mount McKinley, the highest mountain in North America.

10.   It seldom rains during the summer in Alaska.

11.   It can be hot and humid in Hawaii in the summer.

12.   There is no humidity in Alaska.

 

Main topic

Alaska

Hawaii

Accommodations

 

 

 

 

 

Climate

 

 

Natural beauty

Chugach mountains and Mount McKinely

 

 

Steps 3: Decide which pattern of organization to use in your report: block or point-by-point.

Step 4: Make an outline of your report.

Step 5: Write your report.

Comparison/Contrast Signals

 


Two Varieties of English

     Although U.S. English and British English are mutually understandable languages, there are quite a few differences. One difference is spelling. Some words are spelled one way in the United States but spelt another way in Great Britain. A person goes to a British theatre but to a U.S. theater. In U.S. schools, students theorize, analyze and socialize, whereas British students theorise, analyse, and socialise. A second area of difference is vocabulary. For example, the word college nnames two two very different types of schools in the United States and Great Britain --- university level in the United States and pre-university level in Great Britain. Also, British university students live in halls on campus and in flats off campus, but U.S. students live in dormitories on campus and in apartments off campus. Finally, there are many differences in pronunciation. In Great Britain, the sound of a in the words path, laugh, aunt, plant, and dance is like the a in father. In the United States, in contrast, the a sound in the words is like the a in cat. All in all, though there are differences between the English spoken in the United States and the English spoken in the British Isles, we understand each other most of the time!

 


Questions on the Model

1.       Underline the topic sentence. Does it indicate that the paragraph will discuss mostly similarities or mostly differences??

2.       What comparison and contrast signals can you find? Circle them.

3.       What other transition signals can you find? Put a box around them.

4.       The model uses block organization. What pattern of organization does the writer use within the block? Hint: Look at the boxed transition signals.


Narrative Paragraph

     Narration is story writing. When you write a narrative paragraph, you write about events in the order that they happen. In other words, you use time order to organize your sentences.

      As you read the model paragraph, look for words and phrase that teel when something happends.

Model: narrative paragraph

Earthquake!

          An unforgettable experience in my life was a magnitude 6.9 earthquake.

     I was at home with my older sister and younger brother. Sunddenly, our apartment started shaking. At first, none of us realized what was happening. Then my sister yelled, Earthquake! Get under something! I half rolled and half crawled across the room to get under the dining table. My sister also yelled at my little brother to get under his desk. Meanwhile, my sister was on the kitchen floor holding her arms over her head to protect it from falling dishes. The earthquake lasted less than a minute, but it seemds like a year to us. At last, the shaking stopped. For a minute or two, we were too scared to move. Then we tried to call our parents at work, but even our cell phone didn’t work. Next, we cheked the apartment for damage. We felt very lucky, for nothing was  broken except a few dishes. However, our first earthquake was an experience that none of us will ever forget.

Question on the Model Paragraph

1. In which four sentences does the word earthquake appear?

2. What words and phrases show when different actions took place? Circle them.

Time order

     In the model narrative paragraph, the writer used time order to tell what happened first, what happened next, what happened after that, and so on.

              Notice the kind of words and phrases used to show time order. These are called time order signals because they signal the order in which events happen.

Time Order Signals

Words

Phrases

Finally,

First(second, third, etc.)

Later

Meanwhile

Next

Now

Soon

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

At last

At 12:00,

After a while,

After that,

Before beginning the lesson,

In the morning,

The next day,

……………………………………………….

……………………………………….

 

     Put a comma after a time order signal that comes before the subject at the beginning of a senctence. (Exception: Then, soon, and, now are usually not followed by a comma.)

 - At first, none of us realized what was happening.

- For a minute or two, we were too scared to move.

- Then we tried to call our parents at work.              

Practice 1 : Time order

a.       Look again at the model paragraph. Add any time order Signals words or phrases that you circled to the Time Order Signals chart above.

b.      Complete the paragraphs with time order signals from the list provided, and capitalize and punctuate them correctly. Use each word or phrases once. There is more than one possible word or phrase to fill in some of the blanks.

 

1.       Use these words and phrases:

First

On the night before thanks giving

About 3:00 in the afternoon

Then

After that

After dinner

In the morning

Soon

 before taking the first bite

finally

 

Thankisgiving

Thanks giving in the united states is a day for families to be together and enjoy a traditional meal. On the night before thanksgiving.                Our mother bakes a pumpkin pie, the traditional thanksgiving dessert.ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ she gets up early to prepare the other traditional dishes.  ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــshe makes dressing . ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــshe stuffs the turkey with the dressing  and puts the turkey into the oven to roest. ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــshe stuffs the turkey with dressing and puts the prepares the rest of the meal. She cooks all day long. ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــthe family sits down at the table. ــــــــــــــــــــــــeveryone around  the table says one thing that they are thankful for. ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــwe can begin to eat. We stuf ourselves just as full as Mother stuffed the turkey earlier in the day! ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ we are all groaning because we have eaten too much. ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ we are all groaning because we have eaten too much. ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ we collapse on the living room sofa and watch football games

on TV.  No one moves for at least two hours.

 

2.       Use these words and phrases:

 

On the day of the party                                    first                                                 next

During the party                                                after that                                      finally

Before the party                                               then (use twice)                         later

At the beginning of the party    

 

Fifteen years

 

     A girl’s fifteenth birthday is a very special occasion in many Latin American countries and requires a lot of planning. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ the parents make many preparations. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــthey buy a special dress and order a bouquet of flowers for their daughter. They also plan a large meal for the guests and hire an orchestra. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــthey decorate a big room where the party will be held. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ there are many special tradition.  ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ the father and daughter enter the big salon accompanied by special music. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ the father makes ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ a speech, and the daughter gets some present. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــeveryone drinks champagne ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ the father and daughter dance a waltz, and the daughter and every boy dance together. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ  all of the guests make a line to congratulate her. ــــــــــــــــــ  all of the boys stand in a group because she will throw the bouquet, and boy who catches it dance with her. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ everyone dance to different kinds of music untile six o,clock in the morning.

 

C. The following sets of sentences are not in correct time ordre. Number the sentences in the correct order.

ـــــــــــــــــــShe put the clean dishes a way.

ـــــــــــــــShe removed the dirty from the table.

ــــــــــــــــ She turned on the dish washer.

ــــــــــــــــــ She put them in the dish washer .

ــــــــــــــ She piled them in the sink and rinsed them.

ـــــــــ It was Sarah’s turn to wash the dishes last night.

ـــــــــــ Finally, the dishes were clean.

 

2-

ـــــــــــــــHe filled it out and left.

ــــــــــــــــ He went to the bookshelf, but the book wasn’t there.

ـــــــــــــــــ Tom went to the library to get a book.

ـــــــــــــــــ He went to the computer catalog.

ــــــــــــــــــــ The librarian told him to fill out a form.

ـــــــــــــــــ He told the librairian he wanted to reserve that book .

ـــــــــــــــــ He wrote down the title and call number of the book.

 

3-

ـــــــــــــــــ He gave us a room with an ocean view

ـــــــــــــــــ The airline had oversold economy class seats, so we got to sit in first class.

ـــــــــــــــــ Our good fortune continued at the hotel .

ـــــــــــــــــWe can’t wait to visit Florida again.

ـــــــــــــــــThe hotel manager also gave us coupons for lots of free things.

ـــــــــــــــــThe hotel manager apologized for not having our room ready when we arrived.

ـــــــــــــــــOur vacation in Florida last month was almost perfect.

ـــــــــــــــــThe weather was warm and sunny, so we went to the beach every day.

 

Try It Out!

Write the sentences from the preceding exercise as paragraphs. Try to make your paragraphs flow smoothly by using these two techniques: (1) Add time order signals at the beginning of some of the sentences. (2) Combine some of the sentences to form simple sentences with one subject and two verbs.

 

Example

     It was Sarah’s turn to wash the dishes last night. First, she removed the dirty dishes from the table. Next, she piled them in the sink and rinsed them. After that, she put them in the dishwasher and turned it on. Finally, the dishes were clean.

 

Source: Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. (2007). Introduction to Academic Writing (3rd ed). USA. Pearson Education, Inc.

 


Process paragraph

 

     A process paragraph is a description of how to do something. It explains the steps you need to follow to complete an activity. Read this recipe and do the exercises below.

Ingredients:

·         Two cups of brown rice and one tablespoon of cooking oil

·         Three tablespoons of chilli sauce

·         Three cloves of garlic

·         One green pepper

·         One red pepper

·         One onion

·         Two tomatoes

·         Two spring onions

·         Salt

·         Pepper 

Mike’s Brown Rice and Vegetables

      Brown rice and vegetable is a simple and delicious meal to make. First, cook the rice, following the direction on the packet. Then, cut the vegetable into one –inch pieces. Next, heat the oil, chilli sauce, and garlic in a frying pan. After that, add the vegetable and fry them until they are soft, but still a little bit crunchy. Now it’s time to stir in the cooked rice. After stirring the rice and vegetable together, add salt and pepper to your own taste. Finally, put the rice and vegetable into a large bowl and serve it with freshly chopped tomatoes and spring onion on top. Now you are ready to enjoy your delicious brown rice and vegetable!

I)

a.       Underline the topic sentence and the concluding sentence of the paragraph.

b.      List the steps for making brown rice and vegetable in the order you find them.

1.       Cook the rice.

2.       ……………………………………………………………………..

3.       ……………………………………………………………………….

4.       ………………………………………………………………………..

5.       …………………………………………………………………………..

6.       …………………………………………………………………………….

7.       …………………………………………………………………………………

 

c.       How are the steps in the paragraph connected together? What word do you see that help show the sequence to follow? Underline them.

 

II) Transitions

     What are transitions?

     Transitions are words that connect the steps in a paragraph. Transition words and phrases show the relationships between the ideas in a paragraph. They are not used between every sentence, but are used often enough to make the order clear. Here are some common transition words and phrases that show time order or the order of steps:

 

First, second, third, etc.                      finally              ……………..

Next                                                       the last step    ……………

Then                                                      before               ………………………….

After, after that                                    while                ………………………..

 

- Add other transition words you know to the list above.

 

- Choose appropriate transition words to connect the steps in this paragraph about preparing for a trip.

 

     Planning a holiday abroad? Here are some suggestions to make your trip successful.……………………………….., find out if you need a visa for the country that you want to visit. Make sure you have enough time to apply for it. ………………………you buy your ticket. ………………………. you’ve found out about visas, you should research airfares and timetable. ……………………….., look for the best flight for you. Remember, the cheapest flight may stop over in several cities and reduce the amount of time you have to spend at your destination. You might want to fly direct.  ………………………… you’re researching flights, you can also ask your travel agent about getting a good deal on a hotel. It’s a good idea to book your flight and hotel early if you’re sure of your destination. If you haven’t already done it, the ………..step is to learn about places to visit, the weather, the food, and other details about the country. The Internet can be a very useful source of information. ..........., on the day of your flight, make sure you go to the airport at least two hour before your flight. Now you are ready to start enjoying your holiday!

 

III) Ordering sentences

 

1.       Order the steps to form a process paragraph. Write 1 next to the first step, 2 for the second step, and so on.

 

Introduction to linguistics: language-learning research project

 

     Conduct an experiment to find out whether learners of English use English more correctly in a written test or in informal conversation.

 

a.       ………………  Next, make a written test that checks the grammar point you are researching. This could be a fill-in-the blanks test, a correct-the-errors test, or another style. It should have at least ten questions, but it should not be too long.

b.      …………… After giving the written test, interviews each learner individually for about ten minutes. Try to make the interviews informal and friendly. Be sure to ask question that will encourage learners to use the grammar point you are researching. Record the interviews.(Ask for learner’s permission first!)

c.       …………….. After you have counted the errors, calculate the score as a percentage. Do this for the written test and the spoken interview

d.      ……… Next, read the test and listen to the recording. Make a note of how many times your chosen grammar point was used, and how many times it was used incorrectly. Do this for the written test and the recorded conversation.

e.      …………Third, find about ten intermediate-level English learners who will agree to take your test. Arrange a time to give the test to each learner.

f.        …………….Finally, prepare two graph to compare your results. Did learners make more mistakes on the written test or while they were speaking?

g.       ………….First, choose a common English grammar point you would like to use in your research. Ask your teacher for a suggestion if you need help choosing one.

 

 

2.       Write a process paragraph about a topic that you know well. First, brainstorm all the steps that need to be followed. Then write the paragraph. Remember to use transitions.

 

3.       This paragraph describes a city park, but is does not have enough descriptive details. Imagine that you live next to a park. Rewrite the paragraph, adding description, to make it more interesting.

 

     I live next to a park. The park is large and has trees and grass. There is a lake in the park where you can see people enjoying many activities. There are a lot of places to sit and relax. There are a lot of paths that you can walk on, and everywhere you walk you can see flowers. I really enjoy spending time in this park.       

Source: Zemach, D. & Rumisek, L, 2003. Academic Writing: from paragraph to essay. Macmillan Publishers Limited.

 


Descriptive Paragraph (2)


This course introduces first-year students to writing an English paragraph. This covers the following aspects:

- Paragraph format

- Paragraph structure (major and minor support sentences),

- Writing a good topic sentence,

- Paragraph unity,

- Paragraph coherence,

- Paragraph development patterns (description, narration, comparison/contrast, illustration, definition, cause/effect, argumentation, etc)

Objectives

By the end of this course, the students will be able to write a paragraph on any topic that interests them.

Course Description

First year written expression and comprehension course attempts to enhance the learners’ writing competence in general and raising their awareness of the English writing styles and functions in particular. It includes two major parts: written comprehension and written expression. In the first semester, learners are expected to comprehend English sentence structure and style focusing on precision, accuracy, agreement, vocabulary and spelling differences between British English and American English, homophones and formal style. In the second semester, learners are expected to express their thoughts clearly and appropriately through organizing their ideas in sentences and paragraphs. Several types of paragraphs will be read as models so that students would practise most of the writing functions; this includes description, comparison, narration, argumentation, etc. Throughout the suggested programme, good command of punctuation and capitalization is also targeted.

  • Students will learn basic elements of the English simple sentence.
  • Students will learn basic rules in spelling to help them edit and proofread their own writing.
  • Students will know how to write consistently through distinguishing British English from American English.
  • Students will learn how to write appropriately and formally.Students will learn how to capitalize words separately and within sentences.
  • Students will learn how to punctuate sentences and paragraphs.
  • Students will learn how to develop a paragraph and communicate their ideas through various writing functions.

 Main Objectives of the Course

The course of written comprehension and comprehension has of major objective to train first year BA students of English language to write clearly and express themselves appropriately. Also, it attempts to provide students with the basic knowledge and skills through practical exercises and activities to help them improve their expressive capacity and consolidate the quality of their writing. On the whole, all over the course: